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NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS)

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ACRIMSAT - Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor
    Monitor total solar irradiance. Focus areas are climate variability and change, and water and energy cycle. Data will be correlated with possible global warming data, ice cap shrinkage data, and ozone layer depletion data.

    Monitor atmospheric, land, ocean, and ice variables for improved understanding of the Earth’s water cycle and improved understanding of the intricacies of the climate system.

    Measure atmospheric chemical composition; tropospheric/stratospheric exchange of energy and chemicals; chemistry-climate interactions; air quality.
CALIPSO - Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation
    Measure the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols) to study the role that clouds and aerosols play in regulating Earth's weather, climate and air quality (joint with France). 

    Measure cloud characteristics, to increase the understanding of the role of optically thick clouds in Earth’s radiation budget (joint with Canada).

    Collect data to allow paired scene comparisons between EO-. Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

GRACE - Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
    Measure Earth’s gravity field and its variations with time (joint with Germany). Study changes due to surface and deep currents in the ocean; runoff and ground water storage on land masses; exchanges between ice sheets or glaciers and the oceans; and variations of mass within the Earth.

NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS)

ICESAT - Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite
    Measures ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heightsstratospheric clouds common over polar areasas well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.
    Monitor ocean height to study ocean circulation (joint with France).
LAGEOS - Laser Geodynamics Satellites
    Provide an orbiting benchmark for geodynamical studies of the Earth. Determine the planet's shape (geoid) and, tectonic plate movements associated with continental drift.

    Monitor the land surface through high-spatial-resolution visible and infrared measurements (joint with USGS).

OSTM (JASON-2) - Ocean Surface Topography Mission
       Map ocean surface topography and the data collected will provide information on ocean surface current velocity and heights.

QUIKSCAT - Quick Scatterometer
    Measure ocean surface wind vectors, with the SeaWinds instrument.
SORCE - Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment
    Measure the total and spectral solar irradiance incident at the top of Earth’s atmosphere.
    The flagship satellite of NASA's Earth observing systems. Collect global data on the state of the atmosphere, land, and
and their interactions with solar radiation and with one another.

Information sources: NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook c. 2006, JPL, GSFC, and NASA websites.